Yes, Cookbooks are a Genealogy Source


Everyone who knows me knows that I love using cookbooks for genealogy. I know when you envision a cookbook your first thought isn’t that it’s a genealogy source. Obviously, not all cookbooks are genealogy sources. That latest cookbook from your favorite food celebrity is most likely not genealogically relevant. But that community cookbook definitely is.

What are genealogy sources? Genealogy sources have names, dates, and places. They help us either connect family members to each other or place a person in time and location. The latter is what community cookbooks do.

Community cookbooks or fundraising cookbooks are just one type of cookbook that has genealogical value. Another are the cookbooks published by newspapers that include reader recipes. These cookbooks are similar to community cookbooks in that they provide a name, date, and place. In some cases, the recipes may have originally appeared in the newspaper but then were combined together and published as a cookbook.

Rare Recipes and Budget Savers

I was reminded of what a rich resource newspaper cookbooks are when I was transcribing one from my collection for a new project by the Wichita Genealogical Society (Kansas). This project seeks to index Kansas cookbooks, allowing researchers to search for their female ancestors in a resource where her name and place can be found.*

I decided to transcribe my copy of Rare Recipes and Budget Savers (Volume 1) from The Wichita Eagle newspaper. First published in 1966, my copy is the seventeenth printing from October 1977.

Kasnas cookbook cover
Rare Recipes and Budget Savers as compiled from the Columns of the Wichita Eagle's HomeTown News, Volume 1.

I LOVE this cookbook. It not only includes women’s names but also their residence, including a street address if they are in Wichita, and in some cases extra information about their family, their ancestors, and more.

Kansas cookbook grape dumplings

Consider just a few of this booklet’s entries. This one for Wild Grape Dumplings includes the recipe contributor’s name, the name of a Kiowa woman who gave the contributor the recipe and the city both women were from (pg. 8).

Kansas cookbook what to do and how to do it

This compilation of tips titled, What to Do and How to Do It (pg. 13) includes the contributor and her mother’s name and street address. (yes, the names used are their husband’s name as is often the case in older cookbooks).

Kansas cookbook cornbread dressing

You never know what a cookbook might reveal. Consider this recipe for Cornbread Dressing (pg.33). Not only is the name of the contributor and her street address in Wichita included but you know she was not always a Kansas resident because she provides the state she is originally from, Georgia.

Kansas cookbook lime pickles

In this recipe for Lime Pickles, the reader learns the name of the recipe contributor, Elizabeth Capps and her sister Mrs. W.B. Wallace, as well as their street address (pg. 37).

You get the idea. This cookbook includes women’s names (or their married name), addresses, and in some cases, familial relationships. This directory of women is an important genealogical source for those trying to place their female family members in time and place.**

What's a Genealogical Source?

Is this a genealogical source? Of course! It provides names, dates, and location. Although we don’t find other important genealogical information such as a vital record event, cookbooks help us locate women in a specific location in time.



*This index is for members only but you can see what they offer from their website.

** Yes, there are some recipes contributed by men in this cookbook, but just a few.


Gena Philibert-Ortega is an author, instructor, and researcher. She blogs at Gena's Genealogy and Food.Family.Ephemera. You can find her presentations on the Legacy Family Tree Webinars website.

5 Things You Can Learn from a Genealogy Database

How do you research an ancestor using a genealogy website? The most popular way is to enter a name, birth year, and place, and then click the Search button, right? Well, that’s one way to search for your ancestors but it’s not the only or best way.

Becoming familiar with a database where you expect to find an ancestor is crucial. Genealogy websites provide valuable information about individual databases in their collections that can help you better understand what is available, where it is from, and how to search it.

Let’s use a database from MyHeritage to illustrate this. Instead of conducting a search, I went to Research and then in the drop-down menu chose the collection Birth, Marriage & Death.

MyHeritage BMD

As you can see, I can search from this collection page. A search here will find results in any number of databases from their Birth, Marriage & Death collection. But if I know I’m looking for an English record, why not search a specific database for England so I can learn more about that particular database and better understand what I can expect and not expect to find?

To find an English ancestor, I decided to take a look at one database within this collection. The database England & Wales, Marriage Index, 1837-2005 is free so you do not need a subscription to search it. The database’s homepage tells us quite a bit about these records. Before I even start searching I’m going to take a look and learn more about these records.

MyHeritage England & Wales

Let’s look at the five things you can learn from this page.

MyHeritage england & Wales numbers

  1. This site map line shows you exactly where you are on the website. This can be helpful if you need to find your way to this database again or want to go to the collection page. Please note that if you scroll down at the bottom right there is a Categories collection that provides links to marriage & Divorce; United Kingdom; England; and Wales collections.

  2. Here’s the description for this collection. Notice it has the title, how many records are included, and information about the database. There is also a little free green button that lets you know that the database is available to anyone, even those without a subscription. At the bottom is a small arrow and when we click on that we will see the rest of this description. We’ll discuss this more later.

  3. This is the search engine. Notice that collection and database search engines may differ according to what information is searchable. In this case, the fields include name, date, marriage place, and keywords. Notice at the bottom you can check the box for an Exact Search which limited the search to exactly what you type. The other box allows for translations. At the top right is Advanced Search link which allows for search functions that include the spouse’s name and more options in name searching.

  4. Sample Record. In this case there is an image of a sample record so you can familiarize yourself with the database.

  5. Related collections. These are suggested collections that also might help your search.

Now let’s go back up to the description and see what that page says once we click on the arrow.

MyHeritage England and Wales Description

Notice that the information we are given includes a description of the records and search tips. This can be extremely important to our search and can mean the difference between finding and not finding an ancestor because it may list what the database contains versus what is missing, the source citation for the records how to best search, and any information needed to better understand these records. I often find that people become frustrated with searches or proclaim that there is nothing for their ancestor on a website because they haven’t taken the time to see what is in a particular database and what is simply not included.

Take some time with that search

Sure, you can enter a name, date, and place and see what results you receive but what about doing something different? Next time you go to that genealogy website, skip the search and instead choose a database and learn more about it. Knowing more about those individual databases can help you avoid frustration and might even provide you a new record set to search.


Gena Philibert-Ortega is an author, instructor, and researcher. She blogs at Gena's Genealogy and Food.Family.Ephemera. You can find her presentations on the Legacy Family Tree Webinars website.

You Say Bologna, I Say Probate Records

You Say Bologna, I Say Probate Records

Cola, bread, eggs, bologna, cheese

Eight pages of grocery items listed by date, name, and price purchased from the H.D. Powell Grocery Store in Houston County, Tennessee. In some ways it's repetitive. Bologna is always mentioned. Ice Cream now and then. These pages from H. Clay Lyle’s probate file are more than just a look at mid-century food stuff. It may tell us more about his family than what we assume at first glance. In a sense, this documentation of a grocery store debt provides us a look at a family frozen in time.

Probate records can be a goldmine for genealogists. You already know that. Even without a will, a probate file can provide valuable family history clues. That collection of documents provide information about the decedent’s death but also a look at their life. They provide genealogically relevant information such as family names, relationships, places and dates. Because a probate file might be full of information it’s easy to overlook those pages that doesn’t seem genealogically relevant. Case in point, H Clay Lyle’s debt to his local grocery store.

Hermon Clay Lyle was not yet 52 when he died in 1951. He left behind a wife and children, the youngest a teenager. His probate file is filled with information from local retailers about the debt he left behind. One of those claims is from the local grocery store and it includes details of what his family purchased over many months in 1950.

So as a grocery list you might be thinking, “who cares, what does this have to do with genealogy?” Bill Keaggy author of the book Milk, Eggs Vodka: Grocery Lists Lost and Found introduces his irreverent look at discarded grocery lists by writing, “Lists tell us about our neighbors, our friends, our ancestors, our species and ourselves.”[1] He goes on to tell the history of grocery lists and notes that some of the oldest grocery lists date back to the 1st century CE and are housed in the British Museum. [2]

The Powell Grocery Store inventory of what is owed by the estate of H. Clay Lyle gives us a peek at what the Lyle family was eating but it’s most likely not complete. Judging from the monotony of the few items purchased regularly at the store, it’s most likely that the family supplemented this food with others acquired in some other way. The family could have been tending a garden and thus that’s why vegetables are not found in large quantities from these lists. Maybe they canned their produce so to have food available throughout the year or in time of hardship. They could have raised chickens or hunted to provide meat for dinner (the inventory does show the purchase of eggs so it’s possible this wasn’t the case). They may have even received food in trade or barter for services. So, we shouldn’t assume that the family lived on bologna sandwiches until we do more research. However, bologna and cheese sandwiches makes sense when we see that the Lyle family included 7 children ranging in age from 18 to 4 years in 1940. Bologna sandwiches is a cheap, portable meal for feeding school-age children.

The Powell Grocery Store inventory
Photo credit: Clay Lyle Estate: Irene Lyle, Administratrix and is in Chancery Court Records of Houston County, Tennessee, Box 2, File #38. Courtesy of Houston County, Tennessee Archives

We also cannot assume that all the food purchased was consumed only by immediate family members. Other family members could have come to live with the family, especially if Mr. Lyle suffered a lengthy illness prior to death. It’s possible that when Mr. Lyle died in 1950, his family still included at least three of those children. So they had quite a few people to feed in their immediate family alone.

There are other assumptions we should avoid like “wow, that’s a lot of bologna” as you read these documents. Every store visit included some quantity of the sandwich meat (as well as other staples like bread). In genealogy we need to notice what records say as well as what they don’t say. Notice that no quantities are given in this inventory. The prices would hint at a quantity, perhaps if we used information on prices from the time period. But a simple notation of “oranges” only tells us it’s more than 1 but not much else. Bologna quantities, are not clear since this was probably purchased per pound. Cheerios would indicate a box (and yes, Cheerios existed in the 1950s, they were introduced in 1941). Buying bread would indicate that Mrs. Lyle was not baking bread, not that unusual for the time period and because sliced bread would have been readily available.

I’ve talked about what the inventory doesn’t tell us but what does it tell us? Well, it does start to provide a sense of the family’s foodways. What foods were available in Houston County, Tennessee in the 1950s? This list gives us a hint. The family enjoyed desserts and had a sweet tooth. They regularly bought Ice cream, cake, gum, cola, cookies, and pudding make appearances on the list. They do eat canned food including potted meat, Vienna sausages, and pork and beans. There’s no doubt their regular meals included milk, bananas, bread, cheese, and bologna. But occasionally other foods made an appearance such as franks (perhaps hot dogs), pickles, potatoes, and cabbage. Staples such as salt, lard, and sugar are also purchased.

There are not just food products represented in these pages. Other non-food items appear such as aspirin, hair oil, hair nets, light bulbs, Tide, pencils, wax paper, furniture polish, socks, and lotion.

For those of us who are not familiar with running a tab at the local grocery store, this could lead us to learn more about this practice and look for manuscript collections for stores in our ancestor’s hometown for possible records the store kept.

Old fashioned country store/Library of Congress

One other mystery that the list doesn’t explain has to do with the debt and the dates. Mr. Lyle died on 17 January 1951. Powell Grocery store provided the list and a statement about the debts in April 1951. However, the lists date from April 1950 to July 1950. Why are there no charges for the later half of 1950 or the beginning of 1951? Possible answers may include the closure of the store, the family temporarily moving, frequenting another store, or accepting food from another source. Further research into this question might provide some genealogically relevant information.

One last thing to consider. This list is from a probate for a man who is living in Tennessee prior to the 1950s. Like the saying goes, “the past is a foreign country, they do things differently there.” I am analyzing these pages as someone who has never lived in Tennessee nor ate in the 1950s. So research into the area and its food history would help me make sense of these documents.

It’s easy to quickly go through a probate file and quickly dismiss items that seemingly do not provide genealogical information. But to do so would be a mistake. Items including the seemingly ordinary list of grocery items can shed some light on a person’s life. This list is a good reminder that genealogical analysis means careful consideration of all materials connected to our ancestors.

Thanks to Melissa Barker who alerted me to this case and provided me the documents.



[1]Keaggy, Bill, Milk Eggs Vodka: Grocery Lists Lost and Found. Cincinnati: OH, F+ W Publications, 2007. Pg. 2.

[2] Pg 152.


Gena Philibert-Ortega is an author, instructor, and researcher. She blogs at Gena's Genealogy and Food.Family.Ephemera. You can find her presentations on the Legacy Family Tree Webinars website.


Teaching Kids Genealogy through Stamp Collecting

What were your childhood hobbies? Sure, some of you will answer “family history!” but for many of us, our hobbies included other pursuits like sports and music or collecting baseball cards. When I’ve asked my genealogy friends what they collected as children, oftentimes they mention postage stamps.

Genealogy and Stamp Collecting?

Is there any relation between stamp collecting and genealogy? Is stamp collecting an avenue to genealogy? I think it can be because of what it teaches. Lessons learned stamp collecting easily transfer to family history research.

What can stamps teach kids? Much of what good genealogists need to know, for example:

Geography: Depending on a person’s interest, stamp collections can include international stamps or concentrate on one country. Some stamps depict geography, showing maps or locations. Stamp collections can focus on the smallest country in the world, Vatican City (issuing stamps since 1920[1]) or the United Nations.


Historical Events: Stamps are great for teaching history. They commemorate historical events, depict famous people, and honor organizations. I knew about the Grand Army of the Republic long before I was a genealogist because of the 3-cent postage stamp from 1949 commemorating the final national encampment of the GAR.


Organization: If you have a stamp collection, you have to have an album to put them in. And most likely they will be organized in some way whether by country or state or topic. Genealogists tend to collect a lot of paper documents and so organization is key to keeping track of various family lines and good habits can start with stamp collecting. Just like with family history, paper and digital options exist.


Searching and Researching: My love for research most likely stems from stamp collecting. My grandfather would buy me the annual stamp yearbooks from the United States Postal Service and I would read the story about each stamp as I filled the pages. As I got older, I read magazines and other publications about stamps.


Today, researching a stamp is so much easier. Various websites could be used including the Smithsonian’s National Postal Museum, London’s Postal Museum, or even the Musée de La Poste in Paris, France. A list of other worldwide postal museums can be found on the Wikipedia page for Postal Museums.

Homeschooling children? Postage stamps can easily be integrated into your lesson plans and can help you teach everything from history to economics, to geography. You could even use them in a lesson on genealogy where you curate a collection of stamps that depict the places your ancestors were from, the historical events they were a part of, or even a job or other activity they took part in.


Postage Stamps and Genealogy?! Yes!

Just like many genealogists, I collected stamps starting at about 7 years old. My paternal grandfather collected stamps and regularly gifted me stamps and commemorative stamp albums. My maternal grandmother gave envelopes from her correspondence (including one from an English genealogist who was writing her regarding a look-up). Even today, I can’t help but save stamps that have to do with women’s history, like the recent Suffrage centennial stamps.

Wish your descendants were interested in family history? Of course, you can introduce them to family history research but you might also want to consider getting them hooked on stamps collecting. Stamp collecting teaches geography, history, makes one aware of historical time periods, and requires you to organize, all great habits for budding genealogists.


[1] “Postage Stamps and postal history of Vatican City,” Wikipedia ( accessed 23 July 2020).


Gena Philibert-Ortega is an author, instructor, and researcher. She blogs at Gena's Genealogy and Food.Family.Ephemera. You can find her presentations on the Legacy Family Tree Webinars website.


Let’s Hear it for the Genealogists


What in the world of genealogy are you thankful for? Even in a pandemic year, there are things that the genealogist might be thankful for. When I think about my own list, towards the top are the volunteer efforts of those in the genealogical community and what they contribute to our collective research. Without individuals, groups, and society volunteers, researchers would not have the scope of free indexes, transcriptions, and records available to us.

You probably have some favorite volunteer projects that are your research go-to’s. Finding aids like Cyndi’s List and Linkpendium immediately come to my mind, but there are so many more resources to explore. Naming all those projects in a blog article is difficult since there are so many. The following are just a few I randomly selected that you might want to add to your resource list. 

The Ancestor Hunt is such an important resource if you are looking for United States and Canadian historical newspapers. Don’t forget to explore the links to other records such as Yearbooks and Directories or the More link at the end of the top toolbar that has a drop-down menu of all kinds of records that are easy to miss on the website.

Online Historical Directories is the work of genealogist Miriam Robbins who also hosts a sister website called Online Historical Newspapers. This work in progress provides links to directories (yes, city directories but others as well) for countries that include the US, Canada, and Ireland. Links include resources for free and fee-based websites.

Houston Suffragists Project. I’m so grateful to Nancy Loe of Sassy Jane Genealogy who posted about this project. In honor of the 19th amendment the Houston Genealogical Forum “a small group of genealogists, to find and preserve the historical records of Houston women voting in 1920.” The suffrage centennial inspired this group to ask “Could we identify the newly enfranchised women in 1920?” From that research question, they set out to find those women in records. A fabulous project that helps tell the story of female ancestors from Houston. Peruse the List of Women to see if you recognize a name.

The Honor Roll Project is a project founded by genealogist Heather Wilkinson Rojo that encourages others to “transcribe and photograph military honor rolls. The transcribed names make the soldiers available for search engines, so that descendants, family members, and friends can find them on the internet.” If you have an honor roll plaque in your hometown (or a town you are visiting) consider adding those names to this project. The project currently encompasses the United States, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, and the United Kingdom.

Olive Tree Genealogy. This work by Lorine McGinnis Schulze includes over 1,900 genealogy records in the categories of: “Passenger Lists, Immigration Tips, Canada, Military, Genealogy Guide, Loyalists, New Netherland, Native American, Palatine Genealogy, Photo Albums, Almshouse, Lunatic Records, Orphan Records, Huguenots, Mennonites, Quakers,” and more. In addition to transcribed records, you will find tutorials and genealogy guides. Do yourself a favor and spend some time perusing this website.

Online Searchable Death Indexes and Records. I’ve written before that I’m a big fan of Joe Beine. His websites are great finding aids for vital records and other genealogically relevant materials. His other websites can be found on his Professional Genealogy & Family History Research page . If you’re researching in the United States, do yourself a favor and check out his blog post on NARA’s Social Security Numident Files. His blog also provides updates about what links he has added to his websites.

Obviously, there are more projects than what I have listed including large collaborative projects like the USGenWeb. But my point was not to just give you some great links but to also get you thinking about the volunteer projects you use and love.

Thank you!

Thank you to all who have a project, big or small, that makes the difference to family history researchers. It’s a lot of work and dedication and although it’s not said enough, it is appreciated.

Do you volunteer on a project that provides resources and records to family historians? Do you know of a website that you rely on that is volunteer-driven? Please share it in the comments below.


Gena Philibert-Ortega is an author, instructor, and researcher. She blogs at Gena's Genealogy and Food.Family.Ephemera. You can find her presentations on the Legacy Family Tree Webinars website.



A Suffrage Thanksgiving

A Suffrage Thanksgiving

The year 2020 marks the 100th anniversary of the 19th amendment, granting American women the right to vote. However, some women already had the right to vote and had been doing so for decades prior to the 1920 federal amendment. One of those groups of women were the women of Wyoming.

Wyoming’s state motto is “Equal Rights,” reflecting their early granting of equal suffrage rights to women. (Some women in New Jersey voted much earlier in 1776 and continued to do so until 1807 when they were disenfranchised, and women in Utah were granted suffrage in 1870 but beat Wyoming women to the polls).

Food might seem irrelevant when we study suffrage, but actually, nothing could be further from the truth. Suffragists used food, cookbooks, and restaurants to spread their message of equal rights for women. Several cookbooks published by suffragists were used to spread the word and raise funds for the cause. One of these cookbooks, The Woman Suffrage Cookbook edited by Hattie A. Burr can be read for free on Google Books.

Wyoming cover

For Thanksgiving, I thought I would spotlight a suffrage cookbook published originally in 1965 to commemorate the centennial of suffrage in Wyoming. Cooking in Wyoming was published in multiple editions (I’m using the 3rd edition, published in 1969). The Wyoming State Archives’ blog Wyoming Postscripts writes of the original edition,

In 1965, First Lady Martha Close Hansen helped to compile a cookbook full of Wyoming family recipes for the 75th anniversary of statehood. This was a special anniversary for Wyoming as there were still many people living who had either seen the original statehood celebration or had heard about it from those who had lived it.[1]

What I love about this community cookbook is that it not only includes recipes but, many times, provides comments about those recipes. The following are a few Thanksgiving favorites for your recipe collection.

Looking for an appetizer idea? Here are some ideas for stuffed celery.

Wyoming celery

A roasted turkey is the star of the Thanksgiving show.

Wyoming turkey

And my favorite pie ( and the best pie) is pumpkin.

Wyoming pumpking pie


I have to show you one more recipe that made me laugh when I saw it. This is a great provenance for the evolution of this recipe.


Wyoming tomatoes


Happy Thanksgiving!

[1] “Friday Foodie: Governor’s Mansion Hollandaise Sauce,” Wyoming Postscripts ( accessed 18 November 2020).


Gena Philibert-Ortega is an author, instructor, and researcher. She blogs at Gena's Genealogy and Food.Family.Ephemera. You can find her presentations on the Legacy Family Tree Webinars website.


Baby Books Are More Than Just Memories

Recently the JSTOR Daily blog featured a post based about an academic study of baby books. The Long-Lost Ritual of Baby Books was a summary of an article by Janet Golden and Lynn Weiner titled Reading Baby Books: Medicine, Marketing, Money And The Lives Of American Infants which is a look at the history of baby books. The authors discuss reading baby books as history and that baby books not only record historical information but they include observations. Golder and Weiner write:

Situated between biographies - with their accounts of lives lived within particular historical contexts - and scrapbooks - with their displays of accumulated materials deliberately arrayed for presentation - baby books can be said to be like birder's notebooks. They record information, but also include personal observations. For historians they serve as records of individual experiences seen at close range and as field guides to nursery experiences as the entry pages change. Mothers (the writers of all the baby books we viewed) were clearly conscious of writing for themselves and for the children who would inherit the books.[1]

The authors remind the reader that “babies had a history” and that baby books are an often “neglected source” that should be examined.[2]

Home Sources

Reading the blog post and the article got me thinking of ignored home sources. Although baby books are a more recent source,they are not a common source. While I did find thousands of results from an ArchiveGrid search on “baby book” they are largely a home source. Not everyone's family kept a baby book and while you may not have access to a more recent ancestor's baby book, you may at least have you own.

Baby Book
From the collection of Gena Philibert-Ortega

Genealogical Mentions

Family history isn’t just about researching the dead. It’s also about documenting the living. A baby book can provide us some information and clues as we document our own lives. They also provide what genealogical sources often give us, they situate people in time and place.

Photo of a baby from a baby book
From the collection of Gena Philibert-Ortega


What can baby books hold for the family historian? A quick look at my baby book revealed:

  • Greeting cards from family and friends with notes
  • The newspaper from the day I was born
  • Newspaper notice of my birth
  • Names of visitors
  • Gifts and the names of those who gave them
  • Family tree with photos
  • Photographs from birth to 7 years.
  • Photographs of friends
  • Doctor visits and progress
  • Holiday and birthday celebrations

Besides learning that at 4 months old I drank soda and enjoyed traveling, I found signatures for my grandparents and great-grandparents, read my birth announcement, and learned a little more about my first years.

Detail from Baby Book
From the collection of Gena Philibert-Ortega

So what’s this got to do with genealogy? Our family history should include ourselves. We should not only “interview” ourselves but gather records, both official and the unofficial. Home sources whether they be photographs, scrapbooks, correspondence or baby books, help us to tell our story. They provide the chance to illustrate our story with images and to write about events that we don’t remember but are part of our lives.

Have you used a baby book for your genealogy? Do you have baby books for your parents or grandparents? I’d love to hear about it in the comments below.


[1] The article is available at

[2] “The Long-Lost Ritual of Baby Books,” JSTOR Daily ( accessed 5 November 2020).


Gena Philibert-Ortega is an author, instructor, and researcher. She blogs at Gena's Genealogy and Food.Family.Ephemera. You can find her presentations on the Legacy Family Tree Webinars website.


Using Finding Aids to Discover Newspapers Around the World


You’re ready to do some newspaper research. Maybe you’re hoping to find mentions of an ancestor or you just need to add some historical context to their story. How do you find a historical digitized newspaper for a country you aren’t as familiar with? A finding aid might be the answer. 

What is a finding aid? In this case, it’s a resource to help you find websites and repositories with the newspapers you need. It’s an important first step in research especially when you are unfamiliar with the research in a particular place. Instead of going straight to a newspaper website, consider searching a finding aid first to learn more about what is available.

Here are a few resources to help you find historical newspapers worldwide. Remember the following websites don’t have the actual newspapers, they merely provide links to direct you to the website that does.

Cyndi's List

First things first. Cyndi’s List is most likely a familiar website no matter what your genealogical interest. Since 1996, Cyndi has indexed links to websites and today her website boasts over 300,000 genealogical related links. To find newspaper links on Cyndi's List, search for the country and then the category “newspapers.” Some examples include: 

FS Research Wiki

The FamilySearch Research Wiki is another must-see for trying to locate newspapers. Conduct a search for the place of interest and then you may find the category “newspapers” in the Records Type box. You can also conduct a search for the topic of newspapers (without a specific location) and find pages like Digital Historical Newspapers.

While FamilySearch does not have digitized newspapers they do have newspaper content that includes indexes and abstracts as well as some newspaper titles on microfilm.

Online Historical Newspapers

In the genealogy world there are so many people who work hard to uncover and share resources. Many times this is a volunteer effort and three such examples are:

On the Online Historical Newspapers website, you will find links to newspaper content for Australia, Ireland, Mexico, United Kingdom, and the United States. The Ancestor Hunt includes links for Australia, Canada, Europe, the Caribbean, and the US. CanGenealogy includes historical Canadian newspaper links by Province as well as other Candian genealogy links.

Wikipedia newspaper archives

Wikipedia is where you expect to find articles on a variety of topics. But it’s also a great resource find finding websites including newspaper archives. Wikipedia – List of Online Newspaper Archives is a list of online newspaper archives by country.

Newspapers are such an essential source for telling the story of your ancestor. Make sure to take some time to peruse newspaper finding aids to find the newspaper that will help you learn more about your family history.

You can watch my recent webinar "In Black and White: Finding Historical Newspapers From Around the World" on the Legacy website for FREE through Wednesday, November 4, 2020.


Gena Philibert-Ortega is an author, instructor, and researcher. She blogs at Gena's Genealogy and Food.Family.Ephemera. You can find her presentations on the Legacy Family Tree Webinars website.


She Was Just a Housewife…Except When She Wasn’t

She Was Just a Housewife…Except When She Wasn’t

Housewife…you see that word, or its related term "keeping house," describing women in the census and other records. But were women always housewives?

You may think that having two working parents is a modern-day necessity, but for most families, that necessity is historical. Women have always had to work to provide for their families. Only families who were well off financially could afford to have wives not engage in paid employment.

Virginia Penny (1826-1913) set out to do something no one had done before. She documented 19th century American women’s work. Her 1863 book, The Employments of Women: A Cyclopedia of Women’s Work (available on Google Books). This work follows her 1862 book, How women can make money married or single, in all branches of the arts and sciences, professions, trades, agricultural and mechanical pursuits. “Penny interviewed thousands of employers and workers in person and by mail-in survey questionnaires. From 1859 to 1861 in New York, she studied various occupations in which "women are, or may be engaged," ending up with 533 listings.”[1]

Virginia Penny documented women’s work for a time period that we incorrectly assume women didn’t work. However, the reality was that women needed to work. She writes in her preface,

I strongly advocate the plan of every female having a practical knowledge of some occupation by which to earn a livelihood. How do men fare that are raised without being fitted for any trade or profession, particularly those in the humbler walks of life? They become our most common and ill-paid laborers. So it is with women's work. If a female is not taught some regular occupation by which to earn a living, what can she do, when friends die, and she is without means? Even the labor that offers to men, situated as she is, is not at her disposal.

In the pages of her Cyclopedia are jobs and descriptions. These entries can help you better understand the time period and the jobs women held. Take, for example, this entry for coverlets where women employed by the interviewee appear to have some real advantages.


Some of the occupations described are all but unknown to us today, take for example, "bone collectors."

Bone collectors

The entry “Postmistresses” provides a look at why women worked. 

I called on Mrs. W., who was for nearly two years at the ladies' window in the general post office, New York. Very few approved of a lady being there. She found some advantages, but many disadvantages arising from her position. In the first place, it yielded her and her child support, the salary being $600.

Penny writes that in 1854 there were 128 postmistresses, and they received the same pay as the postmasters. Her descriptions of jobs include duties and salary and explore the treatment of women in that job.


What's the benefit of looking at an older book such as Virginia Penny's Cyclopedia? Contemporary information. We can better understand our ancestors when we look at materials written at the time they were alive. This work offers us a sense of what it was like to be a working woman in the mid to later part of the 19th century. And it gives us a sense of what was available to our female ancestors working and living in the United States. Using this, along with census data, newspapers, and archival records provide us with information that we can use to write a historical narrative.

In her dedication, Virginia Penny writes, “To Worthy and Industrious Women in the United States, Striving to Earn a Livelihood, this Book is Respectively Dedicated By The Author.” Virginia Penny was one of those women. Having worked as an economist conducting groundbreaking work in women's occupations, she later worked for the census bureau and was involved in the suffrage movement. Unfortunately, in her later years, she would be institutionalized by her brother and would die destitute in 1913. Virginia Penny knew the importance of women's work, and because of her, we can better understand what types of work 19th-century women, our female ancestors, engaged in.


[1] “Virginia Penny, economist and suffragist,” HNet ( accessed 13 October 2020).


Gena Philibert-Ortega is an author, instructor, and researcher. She blogs at Gena's Genealogy and Food.Family.Ephemera. You can find her presentations on the Legacy Family Tree Webinars website.


Success in Finding More About Nell

In the last two weeks, I’ve written about research that left me with more questions than answers. One of my goals in doing so was to illustrate some steps and questions you could ask when you have a research project that begins with very little information. 

As you may remember from last week, I discovered through FamilySearch that Nell Howard Enloe was married to William Stewart Smith in 1926. That's why I couldn't find her in the 1940 U.S. Census; I was searching with the wrong surname (Enloe instead of Smith).

Now that we know that she was married in 1926 let's take a look at the 1930 U.S. Census. With the correct surname, I should be able to find her.

In 1930 Nell H. Smith was listed with her husband Stuart W. Smith, Jr living in Manhattan, New York. The census shows that she was born in Georgia and worked as an editorial reporter for a magazine.[1]

1930 census myheritage

You might recall that one of the documents I posted last week was dated 29 April 1930 that Angie Rodesky provided me listed Nell as the Household Editor of Pictorial Review, so it makes sense that her occupation in the census would be an editorial reporter at a magazine.

If we continue on with our census search, Stewart and Nell are also in the 1940 U.S. census. However, Stewart is listed as William, and Nell is listed without an occupation.[2]

1940 census myheritage

Newspaper research provides more clues to her job as a magazine editor/writer. Nell’s appearances on the radio focused on food and homemaking topics. This 1932 Boston Post article mentions such an appearance.[3] 

1932 Boston Post cropped

Nell was well-known in her day and even appeared in advertisements like this 1936 one for Jewel shortening.[4]

Jewel advertisments

The advertisement reads:

Nell Howard, Enloe, noted New York Cooking Authority. As a well-known radio Home Economics expert, former Food Editor of a leading women's magazine-The Pictorial Review, Miss Enloe is one of a group of Northern authorities whom Swift has asked to try Jewel, the Southern Special Blend Shortening. Miss Enloe tried if in some of her most famous recipes (yes, those at the right) and is much impressed with the results. Her report is summarized on this page: Jewel definitely improved her dishes in several specific ways.

How wonderful is that to find a photo of her?!

I could go on and on with information about Nell. Continued research in the census and vital records revealed that she was the daughter of Hoyt and Ellen Mooty Enloe. Though Nell was born in Georgia, her family had lived in Wedowee, Randolph, Alabama (remember that Wedowee was mentioned in the letter?).

So why did the letter to her mother and some occupational ephemera end up for sale? I'm not sure. Nell died in 1976, and her mother died in 1963. She had two sisters, one died more recently, in 2008, so maybe it was part of her sister's estate and was sold.

I have many more places to look to learn more about Nell, including additional newspaper and digitized book searches. Crowdsourcing this research by posting about it on the Legacy blog was possibly one of the best things that happened. And it's perhaps one of the most important lessons I want to leave you with.

Though we conduct most of our family history research alone in our homes, don't forget what other people can offer your research. I so appreciate those readers who provided additional research help like Mike Saunders, who found Nell and her parents in the 1900 U.S. Census and pointed out that she's also listed on FindAGrave.

Another reader, Hartford let me know that Nell is actually on his Legacy family tree and is his 5th cousin once removed! He writes:

Turns out I actually have Nellie in my Legacy tree! I hadn't recalled her name, but she is my 5th cousin once removed. I do not have her husband or any of her descendants in my tree (though thanks to you, this blog post, and the additional research I've now done on her, I will now add them), but I do have all her direct ancestors leading back to that first well as many other cousins, aunts, uncles, etc). Count me amazed and impressed!!

I don't know that I can be any specific assistance, but the "Enloe" surname is one I am very familiar with. My surname is "Inlow" and all variant spellings of that name (i.e. Enloe, Enlow, Inloe, Inlow, etc. researcher believes he identified over 25 variations!) trace ourselves back to the same common Dutch immigrant, Hendricks Enloos (also variously spelled!). Many branches of the line are fairly well researched and documented. I'll see if I can find anything about Nell Howard Enloe in any of the materials I've accumulated.

Yes, Hartford! I definitely want to connect with you and trade information.


[1] 1930 U.S. census, New York County, New York, population schedule, Enumeration District 1203, Township Manhattan (Districts 1001-1249) sheet 3-B, page 79, Nell H Smith in household of Stuart W Smith, Jr.; digital image by subscription MyHeritage, ( accessed 8 October 2020); from National Archive microfilm T626, roll: 1548.

[2] 1940 U.S. census, Westchester County, New York, population schedule, Enumeration District 60-39, Township Eastchester Town, page: 5A, Nell Smith in household of William Smith; digital image by subscription MyHeritage ( accessed 8 October 2020); from National Archives microfilm T0627, Roll: 2803.


Gena Philibert-Ortega is an author, instructor, and researcher. She blogs at Gena's Genealogy and Food.Family.Ephemera. You can find her presentations on the Legacy Family Tree Webinars website.



[3] The Boston Post. Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States. 7 February 1932, page 61.

[4] The Boston American. Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States. 7 June 1936, page 28.